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Last Updated On: 26/03/2014  


  • Lab analysis of crime exhibits
  • Scene of occurrence examination
  • Expert evidence in the courts
  • Teaching, training & Awareness programmes
  • Research and development activities
  • Forensic intelligence – leads in the investigation of crime.

The scientists of the SFSL are examining the exhibits sent by the investigating agencies in different crime cases and submitting their reports. The knowledge of forensic expertise has not been confined to the four walls of the lab rather found its utility and use in unravelling mysteries of crime in number of cases by visiting and examining the scene of crimes all over the state of HP. At times, it helped in preventing miscarriage of justice and saving lives of innocent persons. Cases examined include – Burglary, homicide, suicide, road accident, railway accident, and fire in the buildings, vehicles i.e. arson cases, aerosol explosions, air crash cases. The reports of lab analysis of crime exhibits and scene of occurrence examination have been defended by deposing expert evidence in the courts as and when required / summoned. Noble deeds done in this arena earned appreciation from the courts as well. Forensic scientists, during the first few years, have been disseminating forensic knowledge to the Gazetted Officers of Police, Prosecution, Judiciary and Medical Officers as well. In the year 2008-09, 92 senior officers and officers-on-probation of the Judiciary, Prosecution and Police, 151 investigating officers of police department were imparted training in scientific Aids / Forensic Science during the year. Students from Government College Baijnath, Ayurvedic College Paprola and Punjab University Chandigarh visited the laboratory and were imparted forensic knowledge. Forensic Science Awareness Week was celebrated in the laboratory in which police officers/officials and students were given awareness of Forensic Science. Services of the scientists of the laboratory have also been utilized for teaching and training, Punjabi University Patiala, P.U. Chandigarh, Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla, and Law Deptt. H.P. University Shimla, Govt. Ayurvedic College Paprola, H.P and Haryana Police. Not only this, in order to have forensic awareness amongst the common masses, the Director of the SFSL has delivered radio talks from All India Radio and Doordarahan Shimla. This programme has been under taken keeping in view that the public should know do’s and don’ts at the scenes of crime. It will help protecting scenes of crime till examination by police and the experts. Director, State Forensic Science Laboratory, Himachal Pradesh has delivered lectures to the visiting students from the universities and also arranged visits of other dignitaries. He also evaluated research papers for a few National and International journals and also acted as an examiner of Postgraduate classes and PhD. in Forensic Sciences of a few universities of the country. Sometimes, techniques of routine analysis do not help in solving forensic problems and then R&D is resorted to dig out the truth. Also, in an endeavor to have database, the R&D is undertaken. In addition, the reports of lab analysis and scene of occurrence examination deliver essential scientific in puts to give leads in the investigation of crime thereby saving man hours besides putting an investigation on the right track.


This division carried out the examinations of the following types of evidentiary clues in different crime cases for identification and comparison.  

  • Blood, semen and saliva
  • Vomit, faecal matter.
  • Tissues and skin in partially burnt bodies and in dowry deaths. 
  • Bone (Animal and Human) Age, sex and stature in respect of human bones.
  • Superimposition cases for establishing identity. 
  • Hair (animal & human).
  • Feathers.
  • Maggots.
  • Wood and Plant Products.

Species of origin & ABO blood grouping tests are carried out more often than not in crime cases. However the laboratory has also got the expertise in rare blood groups and enzyme typing. Cases are being referred to CFSL, Kolkata and CFSL Chandigarh for DNA typing in gang rape cases (mixed body fluid stains), in identity problems and in matters of disputed parentage. Of late, necessary infrastructure in respect of instruments, consumables and training of manpower has been created for DNA typing and a few cases of disputed parentage have been examined and reported by the laboratory during the year.


This division is examining the clue materials pertaining to different crime cases in respect of:  

  • Chemical Identification of substances.
  • Poisons of various types.
  • Petroleum products residues in arson cases and dowry deaths.
  • Determination of drunkenness from blood and urine.
  • Acids and alkalis in personal injury cases.
  • Grease, Wax, natural oils and resins.
  • Trap case samples in bribery cases.
  • Hooch tragedy cases.
  • Cosmetics and organic dyes.

Use of insecticides and pesticides by farmers in the horticulture and on other crops is enormous in HP. That makes these poisons’ easy accessibility to the common man and deaths occur by the use of these poisons. Consequently there is a heavy work load of toxicology cases in the State due to poisoning, and due to viscera being received for analysis in cases of accidental deaths. Its graph is on the increase with every passing year. As per existing workload the division needs to be strengthened by one additional unit of manpower for toxicology cases.


The division started receiving crime cases for laboratory examination in the year, 1999. During the year maximum number of cases pertained to Ballistics, cables/wires and fire related cases.  This trend has continued this year too.  In Himachal Pradesh single barrel breach loading (SBBL) and single barrel muzzle loading (SBML) guns are in common use and as such maximum cases are received involving an examination of these types of firearms. In cases of fire in buildings, vehicles, an examination of electric wires is undertaken to ascertain possible cause either by short-circuiting or other wise to answer the queries of the investigation agencies. In addition, cables, soil, paint, glass, cut marks, tool-marks and foot/shoe-prints are examined for comparison. Also the examination of building materials is undertaken to ascertain the composition and ratio of ingredients used in the construction material.  

          This Division carried out following examinations during the year:  

  • Soil examination and comparison.
  • Footprints, shoe prints & tyre marks
  • Gun shot residues.
  • Comparison of Wires.
  • Paints and Glass.
  • Tool marks.
  • Firearms examination.
  • Cartridge and bullets comparisons and firearm identification. 
  • Building Materials.


Document and Photography division started functioning from October 2000. Cases pertaining to analysis of handwriting, typewriting and computer typing, printed documents, alteration and addition, exercises especially mechanically erased documents, obliterated documents, indented documents, frauds, forgeries, fake currency and burnt documents were examined in the division. The division also carried out the work of examination of stamps and seals on the paper and wood -logs. The photography work was done inside the laboratory for the crime case exhibits and at the scenes of crime at different places. Efforts have been made in ink examination to establish nature of ink used in the writings. Following works were carried out by this division during the year:-

  • Photography at scenes of crime.
  • Indoor photography of exhibits.
  • Photographic comparison.
  • Photographic comparison for identification by superimposition.
  • Examination of exhibits in respect of handwriting typewritten scripts, computer typed scripts, printing forgeries & frauds, security documents and completely soiled and burnt documents.
  • Examination of stamps/seals.
  • Examination of paper


The division started functioning in November 2006 and perhaps first of its kind in the northern part of the country being exclusively devoted to the analysis of NDPS substances. With the availability of facility, cases started pouring in from different parts of the state. The division is well equipped to undertake examination of the varied nature of psychotropic cases.

Following types of cases were examined:

  • Opium
  • Charas
  • Bhang
  • Ganja
  • Heroin/Smack/Brown sugar
  • Poppy straw (Husk)

Other psychotropic substances are given in the NDPS Act. However psychotropic substances generally encountered in the cases are given below and testing facilities for their analysis exist:

  • Alprazolam
  • Dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride
  • Codein phosphate
  • Dextropropoxyphene Napsylate
  • Buprenorphine hydrochloride
  • Diazepam
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