Khewat number normally referred as 'KHATA NUMBER' by revenue
officials is the account number given to owner(s) which form a
set of co-sharers who own the land in same or different
proportions. It therefore, can be understood as the account
number given to various owners in the Khewat. The Khewat number
in the Jamabandi runs sequentially starting from 1 to N.
Khewat Number may get changed in the next Jamabandi due to
rearrangements i.e. same owners who were owners in some Khewat
earlier may get another Khewat number in next Jamabandi. To
clarify the things further, let us assume that there are 10
Khewats in a village and owners A, B & C were earlier in
ownership of the Khewat 5 and did some transactions to a person
say X who may be an owner in this village already or may appear
in the Shajra and Jamabandi of the village due to this
transaction for the first time. Now due to mutation(s), it may
be the case that owners in Khewat number 5 sold complete land to
X. If complete Khewat is sold and owner 'X' already exists in
the village, then all the land will shift to Khewat that belongs
to X. In case owner 'X' is a new owner and was not there in the
Jamabandi earlier, then during mutation entry Khewat number 5
will cease to exist and instead Khewat number 5/1 will be given
to 'X'. During final rearrangement / sequencing of Khewat
number, then it may be the case that depending upon the
caste/sub-caste of the Owner 'X' now Khewat number 5/1 (Khewat
created from 5) may get another number.
arrangement, which has been shown above is a simple one for the
purpose of understanding but in real situations it may be more
complicated one depending upon the nature and type of mutations
taking place in the village.
may say if above is the case then what is the way to know the
Khewat of owners in the previous Jamabandi. This can be known
with the help of Khewat number written with red ink (in
computerized print it is shown as underlined) beneath the
current Khewat number. In case you see Khewat number 6 (in blank
ink) and beneath that Khewat a number say 5 is written in
red-ink, then you can simply assume that present owners of
Khewat number 6 in the current Jamabandi were owners in Khewat
number 5 in the previous Jamabandi.
a denominator is attached to a Khewat number also. This happens
because of the fact that during the writing of Jamabandi and
arrangement of Khewat numbers, a Khewat is left inadvertently
and has to be inserted in between. For example though there were
10 Khewats and Patwari tried wrote the details for 10 Khewat in
sequence one after another but forgot to mention a Khewat in
between. Such Khewat if is to be inserted after Khewat 6 will be
given number 6/1 or if is to be inserted after 8 will be given
number 8/1. Though this practice of writing Khewat number is
wrong but there is no immediate solution available. A facility
has been given to enter such Khewats also by giving additional
field i.e. bata (denominator) for such Khewat number. However,
after the mutations, once a new Jamabandi is prepared, such
denominators will not be allowed.
is true in case of khatoni number also. But for denominator of
Khasra, there is specific meaning and it has been explained in
the section 2.4 ‘Khasra Number’.
Khewat number refers to a set of owners, khatoni number refers
to a set of cultivators in the same sense. This khatoni number
is given to the cultivators in the Khewat and runs sequentially
in the village starting from 1 to N. Each Khewat will have at
least one khatoni or more khatonies but will appear in a
sequence within the Khewat and in the village.
Khatoni number if in one sense shows the cultivators then in
another sense will show who are the persons who have the
possession of the Khatoni consisting of various Khasras in the
Khewat. In still another sense it also shows who are the persons
who are owners of various khasras in the khatoni. In the same
way as in case of Khewat where owner may sell, gift or mortgage,
same type of transaction also takes place in the Khatoni also.
Before the things start confusing you, the example shown below
would help you to understand this issue.
A, B & C are owners in Khewat number 5 and this Khewat has
three Khatonies number 5, 6 and 7. In Khatoni number 5, it is
written 'Kast Va Kabja Swayam' and has got three khasras. Then
this means that these three khasra are collectively possessed
and cultivated by all the three owners mentioned in Col.4 i.e.
Owners Details of Jamabandi. In the next khatoni i.e. Khatoni
number 6 which say has one khasra and it is written 'A, B, C
Hissadar Baya X Mustari Kast Va Kabja Swayam Mustari'. This
description means that the Khasra in the khatoni number 6 has
been sold by all the three owners collectively i.e. A, B & C
to X who is the owner in 'Khana Kast'. This is because of the
fact that owners A, B and C have sold a particular khasra number
to X and X will be shown in khatoni number 6 as buyer and
possession is also with X i.e. the purchaser. The purchaser will
not get any Khewat number for the reason that khasra sold was
earlier under the possession with all the three owners.
Purchaser X will get another Khewat only when this Khewat number
gets divided and shares are worked out based upon the area owned
by each owner.
the khatoni number, another number is written (underlined in
computerised print) in red ink in the manually written Jamabandi)
which shows the Khatoni number of current Khatoni in the
previous Jamabandi. In the manually written Jamabandi this
number is not shown. But once the mutations take place through
this software and Khatonies are rearranged, then under each
current Khatoni number, old Khatoni number would be shown as
explained under section 2.2, that in the manually written
Jamabandi, sometimes a bata (denominator) is added to show the
Khewat inserted in between. It is also true in case of Khatoni.
Khasra number is nothing but a plot number given to a specific
piece of land in the village. Same way as one or more Khatonies
form a Khewat, similarly one or more Khasra form a khatoni. The
Khasra numbers in a khatoni may or may not be mentioned
sequentially and once a khasra number has appeared in a khatoni,
it can not figure in another Khatoni except in the case if the
Khasra is 'Min'. But if it is min then it can not repeat in the
Khasra numbers in a village are created once settlement of
village starts. The settlement officials take village as a whole
and on its map start from North East and give number to each and
every plot in each direction and reach to North East direction
again after giving number to each plot in all the directions.
number may get divided due to sale, gift etc. during the
mutation and is given a new number with denominator. For
example, because of mutation, Khasra number 100 is divided into
two parts then during mutation two divisions of this khasra i.e.
100/1 and 100/2 will be created and transaction takes place.
Once all the mutations have taken place the rearrangement of
Khasra i.e. numbering is done by Patwari. How this
renumbering/rearrangement is done is explained below:
in the village only 499 Khasras were there in the previous
Jamabandi and two new khasra divisions i.e. 100/1 and 100/2 were
created due to mutation. During reorganisation, Khasra number
100/1 will get number 500/100 and 100/2 will get Khasra number
501/100 and khasra number 100 will cease to exists i.e. the last
Khasra number is incremented by one (that is 499 now become 500
and 501) and in the denominator Khasra number out of which the
Khasra is formed is attached. This will be the case for all the
Khasra divisions. New Khasra number generation takes into
account the principal of 'First-In First-Out (FIFO)' that is
Khasra which got divided due to mutation number 5 will have
precedence in getting new number over the khasra number which
has been divided due to mutation number 10. To make the things
further clear, let us say that khasra 100 was divided due to
mutation number 5 and Khasra number 45 was divided into two
parts (i.e. 45/1 and 45/2) due to mutation number 10. Then once
the mutations are over and rearrangement of Khasra is
undertaken, then new Khasra numbers are generated based upon the
principal of 'FIFO'. Suppose last khasra in previous Jamabandi
was 499 then new Khasra number will be 500/100, 501/100 (for
khasra number 100) and 502/45 and 503/45 (For Khasra Number 45).
So the example clarifies though the khasra number 45 is a number
lesser than Khasra number 100 yet Khasra numbers generated out
of 45 due to mutation number 10 will get next i.e. higher
the execution of this software, you will often encounter the
term 'Group Number' not visible in the Jamabandi anywhere but
software making abundant use of this term. The group number has
been given to each owner who himself or along with other owners
owns a specific proportion of land in the Khewat or who have
same parentage. Group number will also refer to the owners in
the different proportions even if their parentage is same.
During the writing of Khatoni description also, sometimes group
numbers are generated to show the groups of cultivators.
Min & Salam
the course of the implementation of Land Records Computerisation
software you will often see the term Min/Saalam (feu / lkye)
invariably. The 'Min' means partially and 'Saalam' means
completely. If min is mentioned against an old Khewat/Khatoni/Khasra
number then you can assume that the Khewat / khatoni / khasra
under consideration is carved / formed out of the old Khewat /
Khatoni / Khasra partially or transaction is taking place
partially. 'Salam' word refers to the fact that new Khewat /
Khatoni / Khasra is formed out of the old Khewat / Khatoni /
Khasra when same was transacted completely. In case the Khewat /
Khatoni / Khasra is formed due to min transaction, then you will
see 'Min' besides the Khewat / Khatoni / Khasra. In case nothing
is mentioned then you can very well assume that the Khewat /
khatoni / khasra is 'Salam', by default.
case an owner takes loan from some individual or an institution
with the security of his land then the deed is known as Mortgage
deed and persons / institutions from which loan is taken are
known as mortgagee. If mortgage takes place from one persons to
another, then the mostly mortgage is with possession that is the
mortgagee has the possession of the piece of land mortgaged and
in revenue terminology it is known as ‘RAHIN’. If the
mortgage takes place and loan is taken from some Government
Institution, then the mortgage is without possession and it is
known as ‘AD-RAHIN’
Awaal / Doaym /
A took loan from B and after mortgaging the land to B then B is
known as Mortgagee 'Awwal' if B further takes loan from 'C'
after keeping the land mortgaged as security, which he had taken
from A. Then C will be known as Mortgagee 'Doyam'. If C further
mortgage the land taken from B to D then D will be referred as
Type of Holding
the course of entering the khatoni details, there is a field
known as 'Type Holding'. The type of holding will be
'Individual' if the possession and ownership rests with the same
family. In case the holding is owned by more than one family
then the holding type will be 'Joint'. If both are not true for
a holding then the holding type will be ‘Institutional'. This
information is very important to understand and should be
entered carefully as in Agriculture Census the information is
analysed based upon this parameter.
the British regime a village was divided into number of
patties/sections based upon the caste of the persons residing in
that village. For example, Rajput used to dwell in a separate
location, Brahimn in other and 'Shudras' still in another
location. These locations were known as 'pattis'. But after the
independence, this classification was changed and at present
refers to various cluster / hemlets in the village in which
villagers reside in groups irrespective of their caste.
term refers to land classification in a broader sense. If it is
'Parvati' then it means that the village falls in mountainous
area. In case if it is known, as 'Changar' then it means that in
the area in which village falls, irrigation is totally rain-fed.
There are different land classifications based upon this land
factor (ranges from 0.000 to 1.000) is specified to convert the
local area unit prevalent in the village to the Metric System
i.e. mentioned in terms of Hectares-Ares-Centares. When the
local unit is multiplied with this conversion factor then the
area in Metric system can be obtained. The reports sent to
Government of India are firstly converted to the Metric system
if local unit is different from the Metric system.
the local unit is Kanal-Marla then a kanal has 20 Marlas. If
local unit is 'Bigha-Biswa-Biswansi' then 20 Biswansi make up a
Biswa and 20 Biswa make a Bigha. If local area unit is 'Meters--Decimetres'
(normally in the urban areas where khasra/plots are very small)
then 100 decimetre make up a meter. In case, the local unit is
'Hectare-Ares-Centeres', then 100 centare (equal to a meter)
form an Are and 100 are form a Hectare. Therefore a hectare
refers to 10000 metres of land.
behalf of Govt., the Nambardar of a village collects land
revenue and deposits the revenue in the Treasury. This service
rendered by the Nambardar is a paid one.
rate of swai changes from time to time and at present it is 65%
of total demand that is if demand is Rs. 1/- then swai will be
0.65 paisa and total revenue to be collected from the owner(s)
will be Rs.1.65/-. Of this 65%, 30 is local rate and 35% is
Nambardari that is the amount given to the Nambardar for this
Collection of Land Revenue
land revenue collection is normally done twice a year by the
Govt. through Nambardar in such a way that land revenue
collection is done half in Kharif and half in Rabi season. But
sometimes it is done in different percentage proportion say 60%
in Kharif and 40% in Rabi or as the villagers decide at the time
of Permanent Settlement.
Area of Village
professional area of village is measured by the Survey of India
organisation. And in all the Agriculture Census reports this
area figures are mentioned. It has been observed that normally
Patwari is not aware of professional area. If that is the case,
then actual area mentioned in the village may be entered against
this field where ever referred to.
term will appear during the entry of Shajra Nasb. This normally
connotes a person's characteristic. If an owner has alamat as 'Bandobasti
Kabij’ / ^^cUnkscLrh dkfct^^ then that means that the owner
was also owner at the time of settlement. In case alamat is 'Baap
Dada Jivit Hai' / ^^cki nknk thfor gS^^ then it means that the
owner's father/grandfather are alive. These alamat details are
to be entered correctly as the processing & printing of
Shajra Nasb depends upon this field information. For example,
even if an owner’s father and grandfather are not alive but
entered as alive then the box of the father and grand father
will be depicted left to the owner's box whereas if this alamat
is not there and not filled then owner's box will be exactly
below the box of his father and father's box will be beneath the
box of owner's grand father.
Column 4 of Jamabandi, in the very beginning, total shares are
mentioned. These shares are in proportion to the total area of
the Khewat. For example if there 100 shares mentioned and total
area of the Khewat is 1000 meters then that means each share is
worth 10 meters. (1000mts. / 100shares)
each group shares are mentioned which are in proportion to the
total area of the Khewat. For example there are three groups in
the Khewat with respective shares as 10, 30 and 50. If in first
group there are 2 owners then each owner will have 10 shares
each and owns 100 meters of land. If in next group also there
are two owners then each will own 15 share i.e. 150 meters of
land each. In the third group there are 5 owners then each owns
10 shares which equivalent to 100 meters of land to each owner.
So the total land comes out to be 1000mts.
case the land is cultivated by other than the owner of the land,
then the person cultivating the land is liable to pay something
either is cash or kind to the owner or agreed based upon the
mutual agreement between the two. The agreement between two
parties is known as 'Lagan'. Sometimes if there is sale deed in
the Khatoni, then the revenue will be mentioned in this column
in that case.
case the land of khasra is such that it is possible to cultivate
it either through man-made irrigation sources or through
rainwater then land type is known as 'Mazrua' otherwise it is
known as 'Gair-Mazrua'.
the 'Gair-Mazrua' land classification one term is usually
referred to, as 'Gair-Mumkin' which specifies that anything
constructed on it, is impossible to shift. For example, if a
house is constructed on a piece of land, then the classification
of that Khasra will be 'Gair-Mumkin Makan' as it is impossible
to shift the same house somewhere else.
customary rights of the village are shown in a report known as 'Wazib_Ul_Arj'.
The attestation of these customary rights by the revenue officer
in front of village and signature of villagers to whom the
customary rights information is read is known Peshani.
TD rights or forestry rights of the villagers in revenue
terminology are known as ‘Bartan’.
of village where predominantly people live.
/ Same As
fellow (land not cultivated for continuous four harvests
though it was cultivated earlier.
fallow (If continued to be uncultivated for next four
measure of area (It is different in different areas based
upon local Karam unit)
twentieth of a bigha
twentieth of a biswa
partly from a well and partly from canal.
sum grain rent or rent consisting of a foxed amount of
grain in the Rabi and Kharif.
type of land on which existing arrangement are difficult
or Supervisor of Patwaris
of Length and varies from tehsil to tehsil and district to
of crop that has failed to come due some calamity
of fields, field register
slips prepared at re-measurement
list of Owner’s holding
by the owner himself
copy of the Patwari’s Map
prepared at the time of settlement.
copy of the new settlement record
Copy of the new settlement record
granted by a Government to landowner for agriculture
Accountant in the Tehsil
type of Mutation is caused by either death or will of a
person. In case of death of a person in the family,
Patwari records the details regarding name of the person
who has died, date of death and entry number of Chawkidar
Register in his Roznamcha Waqaiti (Diary of daily events).
Land can also be transferred to the successors i.e. sons,
daughters, relative or any other person even if the owner
is alive by way of his will.
a person sells his land either completely or partially, to
another person, this type of mutation is know as Bai or
Sale. The information recorded in this case is Sale Deed
No., date of Registry and amount of Registration etc.
type of mutation is carried out after the settlement of
dispute by some court. This is also know as degree by
court (Ba Hakumat Adalat). The information recorded in
this case includes Case Number, Date of starting of Case,
Date of Judgment, Name of the Court, Name of the Judge,
names of the persons who filed the Case, Names of the
persons on whom Case is filed & Judgment Details etc.
a land is mortgaged, completely or partially, to another
person or party, mutation is of Rahin type. The deal can
be either verbal or through Registry. In this case
information like Date of Mortgage, Amount and Registry
No.(or Roznamcha No. in case the deal is verbal). The land
can be mortgaged with or without possession.
(Redemption deed of Mortgage)
type of mutation is reverse process of Rahin. Whenever a
person who has mortgaged his land want to get it back
after paying dues to the mortgagee, the type of mutation
is called Fak-ul-Rahin. It can be of two sub types. Verbal
(through Roznamcha) or through
In case of verbal type, the details include type of
Mortgage Serial No. of Roznamcha Waqaiti amount of
Mortgage returned etc. In case of Registry, Deed No. is
also recorded in addition to the above information.
or mutation of exchange is the mutation, when two owners
decide to exchange their lands. It can Again be either
verbal (through Roznamcha Waqaiti) or through Registry.The
details recorded are similar as those in the previous case
i.e. either through Roznamcha Waqaiti entry or through
a part of complete land is gifted to some person, the
mutation is called Hibba or Gift. The details of the
person to whom land has been gifted are recorded.
a piece of land is given on lease for a long period, the
mutation is known as Pattanama.
there is a division of land in a joint holding, the
mutation is known as Takseem or Mutation of Partition. The
partition can be verbal among the landowners or when court
directs the partition.
in every estate at the time of settlement, it forms a part of
record of rights. Shajra Nasb is a pedigree table showing
succession to ownership rights occurring from time to time in an
estate. It is revised after every five years along with
Jamabandi and in the interval, changes occurring from time to
time are reflected in the Patwari's copy through suitable
Shajra Nasb also serves as an index for locating an owner’s
accounts (Khata Numbers) in the Jamabandi. In the new Jamabandi
owner's accounts are arranged as per arrangement in the Shajra
Nasb. The name of owner in the Shajra Nasb is arranged according
to caste and sub-caste.
prepared quinquenially in duplicate for every estate on the
basis of entries existing and changes recorded on the Mutation
Register, Khasra Girdawari Register and Fard Badr over a period
of 5 years. It is the document to which a presumption of truth
is attached. The form of the Jamabandi has 12 columns and gives
Khewat / Khatoni number-wise information of total holding of
each owner of land in a particular revenue estate. It also
indicates cultivation, rent and revenue and other cesses payable
on land and constitutes an up to date record of various rights
in land. The new Jamabandi is prepared by the Patwari and is
attested by the Revenue Office in a public meeting of local
villages. Two copies of the revised Jamabandi are prepared, one
copy is filed to the District Record Room and other copy remains
with the Patwari. All changes in title/interests of the revenue
estate coming into the notice of Revenue Authorities are duly
reflected in the Jamabandi according to set procedures.
changes in title or interest are incorporated into the Jamabandi
through attestation of mutation. The Patwari enters the
mutations on the basis of a document/verbal information
presented by the concerned parties for the change in
title/interest on land. This information is first entered into
the Patwari’s Diary (Roznamcha Wakyati) giving serial no. And
date and then into the mutation register referencing the
Roznamcha no. However, the final changes in the Jamabandi are
made only after the Revenue officer has attested the mutation.
The mutation form has 15 columns and every entry is given a
Serial Number, which is called Mutation Number. This Mutation
Number runs continuously from one settlement to another for each
estate. The Mutation register is maintained by the Patwari and
all entries are made in duplicate. The Patwari’s copy (PARAT
PATWAR) contains the brief substance of the Revenue Officer’s
order, while the other copy (PARAT SARKAR) contains the detailed
order and is kept in the Tehsil in separate estate-wise bundles.
Whenever a mutation is entered, the Patwari makes a note in the
remark column of the Jamabandi in pencil giving the Mutation No.
and type of mutation. When the mutation is attested, he makes
the entry in Red ink, giving Mutation No., type and date of
new Jamabandi is written, all the mutations accepted are
attached to the new Jamabandi for cross-reference and an index
sheet linking the mutations to the Khatas is placed in the
It is a
register of harvest inspections unlike the Jamabandi, which is
Khewat-wise, the Girdawari, is Khasra-wise. The Patwari conducts
a field to field harvest inspections every six months in the
month of October and April. He records the plot-wise details
regarding crop grown, land description and status of the
cultivator This register is considered important as it acts as
master file for the preparation of many returns and reports.
This document is retained in the custody of Patwari for the
period of 12 years after which it is retrieved from him and
destroyed. No presumption of truth is attached to this record
though entries in it are often used as evidence in courts.
Changes in the tenancy however are made through mutations in
view of Section 10-A on the Tenancy Act.
map for every revenue village is prepared at the time of the
Settlement. The original map is called ‘MUSAVI’. Its updated
version is called ‘SHAJRA KISTWAR’ and these are kept in
safe custody in the Record Room. A wax copy called ‘MOMI’ is
available in the Tehsil.
changes in field boundaries occurring due to partition, sale
etc. attested in Mutation are entered from the Parat Sarkar
Mutation onto the Momi. A copy on cloth called ‘LATHA’ is
kept and updated by the Patwari.
known as "LAL KITAB" these are prepared at the time of
settlement. The kitab has valuable information regarding crops
grown in the estate, soil classification, area under different
crops, land use, transfers in land, wells and other means of
irrigation in the village and abstract of the livestock and
cattle census in the village. The data is updated regularly
through harvest inspections and revisions of other records,
which are the main source of the data to this kitab. These Lal
Kitabs are prepared at village, tehsil and district level and
maintained in the Patwari Office, Kanungo and Sadar Kanungo
customary rights of the villagers are maintained. This
information is attached at the end of the Misal
Hakiyat(Permanent Settlement). In the subsequent Jamabandies
this information is not attached.
forestry right popularly known as TD rights details is
maintained in this document. This too is the part of Misal
Hakiyat(Permanent Settlement). In subsequent Jamabandies, this
information is not attached.